مفهوم گذار به دورة بزرگسالی در میان پیش‌بزرگسالان ایرانی: چشم انداز فرهنگی و اجتماعی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار روان شناسی تربیتی، گروه روان شناسی دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار روان‌شناسی رشد گروه روان‌شناسی تربیتی و مشاورۀ دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی مفهوم بزرگ‌سالی و تأثیر متغیرهای فرهنگی و اجتماعی بر اهمیت­دهی به نشانه­های آن در میان نمونه­ای از پیش­بزرگ­سالان ایرانی است. جامعۀ پژوهش شامل دانشجویان دانشگاه تهران است که از میان آن‌ها 301 نفر به روش نمونه­گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای و پس از غربال‌گری برای شرکت در پژوهش انتخاب شدند (دامنۀ سنی شرکت‌کنندگان 19 تا 28 سال است). شرکت­کنندگان به پرسش‌نامۀ اطلاعات جمعیت­شناختی، سیاهۀ ابعاد پیش­بزرگ‌سالی، پرسش‌نامۀ نشانه­های بزرگ‌سالی و نسخۀ دستیابی پرسش‌نامۀ نشانه­های بزرگ‌سالی پاسخ دادند. برای تحلیل داده­ها از آزمون t، آزمون تحلیل واریانس و آزمون تعقیبی بنفرونی استفاده شد. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که متغیرهای جمعیت­شناختی جنسیت، وضعیت تأهل، عضویت در خرده­فرهنگ­های قومی بر روی دیدگاه افراد از مفهوم بزرگ‌سالی به­صورت معنی­داری اثرگذار هستند (0۵/0 < P). درمورد اهمیت نشانه‌های بزرگ‌سالی  در فرهنگ ایرانی، یافته‌ها نشان داد که شرکت­کنندگان به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشترین اهمیت را برای نشانه‌های مقیاس استقلال­طلبی، وابستگی متقابل، توانایی تشکیل خانواده و  قبول هنجارها قائل بودند (0۱/0 < P). در حالی که نشانه‌های مربوط به مقیاس‌های گذار زیست‌شناختی و گذار قانونی به­طور معنی‌داری اهمیت کمتری از متوسط برای بزرگ­سال شدن از نظر دانشجویان داشتند (0۱/0 < P). درنهایت، دانشجویان معتقد بودند که در حال حاضر آن‌ها تنها نشانه‌های مربوط به مقیاس­های قبول هنجارها، وابستگی متقابل و استقلال‌طلبی را دارند. دانشجویان از نظر دستیابی به این نشانه‌ها به­صورت معنی­داری خود را بالاتر از سطح متوسط ارزیابی کردند (0۱/0 < P). این در حالی است که آن‌ها مطابقت نشانه‌های مربوط به گذار نقش را در خود به­صورت معنی‌داری کمتر از سطح متوسط می‌دانستند(0۱/0 < P).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The concept of the transition to adulthood among Iranian emerging adults: A cultural and social perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Kiani 1
  • Elaheh Hejazi 2
1 University of Kashan
2 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

This research aims to study the concept of adulthood and the impact of cultural and
social variables on giving importance to adulthood markers among a sample of
Iranian emerging adults. The research community consists of Tehran University
students: 301 students (with an age range of 19-28) were selected by stratified
random sampling and screening to participate in the research. Participants responded
to Demographic Information Questionnaire, Inventory of the Dimensions of
Emerging Adulthood (IDEA), Adulthood Markers Questionnaire, and Reached
Version of Adulthood Markers Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by T Test,
ANOVA test and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Findings of the research showed that
demographic variables of gender, marital status, membership in ethnic subcultures
are meaningfully affecting people's views on adulthood concept (P <0.05).
Considering the importance of adulthood markers in Iranian culture, the findings
showed that the participants regarded independence, interdependence, family
capacities, and norm compliance as the most important criteria of transition to
adulthood (P <0.01), while giving less importance (lower than average) to the
biological transition and legal transition as the criteria of transition to adulthood.
Finally, the students believed that by now the only markers of adulthood that they
have reached are independence, interdependence and norm compliance. According
to their evaluations of themselves, their reach to the markers of adulthood is
meaningfully more than average (P<0.01); however they believed that their reach to
the markers of role transition is meaningfully less than average (P<0.01).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emerging Adulthood
  • adulthood markers
  • transition tasks
  • Iranian subcultures
  • and cultural psychology
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