عنوان مقاله [English]
The present article attempts to go through Mahmud Dowlatabadi's novel, Yusef's Days and Nights, and deliver a fresh and different reading of the novel, using the ideas of Carl Gustav Jung on collective unconscious and archetypes. In Jungian theory, collective unconscious is the source of psychological energy and the reservoir of racial memory in mankind. Archetypes are also the universal structures that can be understood through symbolic interpretation of dreams, fantasies, illusions, myths and rituals. One of the most important of these archetypes is the shadow, which is the evil and dark side of the self. The shadow is a person's alter-ego and he/she carries it after him/herself. Unless one accepts and integrates the shadow within themselves, they cannot possibly reach the state of psychological balance and individualization. In the novel, Yusef not only refused to accept and recognize his shadow, he also projects his fears and anxieties unto another character which only exists in his illusions. By and by, his illusions come to take the place of reality. That is why Jung emphasizes the necessity of encountering our shadows, however hard and terrifying it may appear to us.