نقد پژوهش‌های علم عصب‌نگر در حوزة دین و معنویت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

پژوهشکدة تحقیق و توسعة علوم انسانی «سمت»

چکیده

این مقاله به مرور نقادانة پژوهش‌های علم عصب‌نگر در حوزة دین و معنویت می‌پردازد. پژوهش‌ها براساس تکلیف به­ کار بسته‌شده دسته‌بندی و مرور شدند و به اشکال‌های هر یک از آن‌ها پرداخته شد. استفاده از نمونه‌های نابسنده و بسیار کوچک، مصنوعی بودن، غیرآزمایشی بودن، فقدان کنترل، و توجه نداشتن به متغیرهای مداخله‌گر از مشکل‌های روش‌شناختی رایج در بیشتر این پژوهش‌ها بودند. این مرور نشان داد که تجربه‌های دینی، معنوی، و عرفانی با عملکرد یک یا چند ناحیة خاص قشری یا زیرقشریِ مغز هم­بسته نبودند. به ­نظر می‌رسد این یافته نشان دهد که تجربه‌های یادشده از نظر پدیدارشناسی تجربة واحدی نیستند و احتمالاً ناحیه‌ای به نام «منطقة خدا» در مغز وجود ندارد. از میان مناطق مغز، لوب پیشانی در تعداد بیشتری از پژوهش‌ها درگیر تجربه‌های دینی، معنوی، و عرفانی بود که می‌تواند بیانگر اهمیت نسبی شناخت در مقایسه با هیجان در این تجربه‌ها باشد. علاوه بر این، امکان ایجاد مصنوعی تجربة دینی و اندیشة مرضی بودن دین به چالش کشیده شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A critique of the neuroscience research on religion and spirituality

نویسنده [English]

  • Naser Aghababaei
The Institute for Research and Development in the Humanities (SAMT)
چکیده [English]

This article critically reviews the literature on neuroscience of religion and spirituality. Studies, based on the applied task, were categorized and reviewed and their problems have been addressed. Using insufficient and too small samples, being artificial, being non-experimental, lack of control, not addressing the intervening variables were among the most common methodological problems. This review showed that religious, spiritual, and mystical experiences were not associated with any particular cortical or sub-cortical region. This finding seems to show that such experiences phenomenologically are not of one single experience, and probably there is not such thing as “God zone” in the brain. The frontal lobe was more than any other lobes involved in religious, spiritual, and mystical experiences which may show the relative importance of cognition in such experiences, in comparison with emotion. In addition, the probability experimentally inducing religious experience and the idea that religion is pathological have been questioned.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • brain
  • Neuroscience
  • religion
  • Spirituality
  • religious experience
آقابابائی، ن. (1387). درمان در نظام اخلاقی ملامهدی نراقی؛ رویکردی شناختی ـ رفتاری. اخلاق، 13و14، 147ـ169.
پورافکاری، ن. (1385). فرهنگ جامع روان­شناسی روان­پزشکی. تهران: فرهنگ معاصر. پنچم.
حاتمی، ج.، کرمی نوری، ر.، رسول زاده طباطبایی، س. ک.، نوروزیان، م.، و سیف­اللهی، ش. (1384). بررسی تغییرات جریان خون ناحیه­ای مغز هنگام دستیابی به تجربۀ مذهبی با استفاده از روش مقطع‌نگاری با فوتون گاما (SPECT). روان‌شناسی، 3، 279ـ291.
راسخی، ف. (1379). تجربه­های عرفانی واقعی و گمراه­کننده. نقد و نظر، 6(3و4)، 320ـ349.
Aftanas, L. I., & Golocheikine, S. A. (2001). Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention high resolution EEG investigation of meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 310, 57-60.
Aghababaei, N. (2012). Religious, honest and humble: Looking for the religious person within the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(7), 880-883.
Allport, G. W., & Ross, M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 432–443.
Arzy, S., Idel, M., Landis, T., & Blanke, O. (2005). Why revelations have occurred on mountains? Linking mystical experiences and cognitive neuroscience. Medical Hypotheses, 65, 841-845.
Aycicegi-Dinn, A., Dinn, W. M., & Caldwell-Harris, C. L. (2008). The Temporolimbic personality: A cross-national study. European Journal of Psychiatry, 22(4), 211-224.
Azari, N. P., Nickel, J., Wunderlich, G., Niedeggen, M., Hefter, H., Tellmann, L., ... & Seitz, R. J. (2001). Neural correlates of religious experience. European Journal of Neuroscience, 13(8), 1649-1652.
Barrett, J. L. (2000). Exploring the natural foundations of religion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(1), 29-34.
Beauregard, M. & Paquette, V. (2006). Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns. Neuroscience Letters, 405, 186-190.
Beauregard, M. & Paquette, V. (2008). EEG activity in Carmelite nuns during a mystical experience. Neuroscience Letters, 444, 1-4.
Beauregard, M., Courtemanche, J., Paquette, V., & St-Pierre, É. L. (2009). The neural basis of unconditional love. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 172, 93-98.
Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2008). Affective neuroscience of pleasure: Reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology, 199, 457-480.
Booth, J. N., Koren, S. A., & Persinger, M. A. (2005). Increased feelings of the sensed presence and increased geomagnetic activity at the time of the experience during exposures to transcerebral weak complex magnetic fields. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 1053-1079.
Braithwaite, J. J. (2004). Magnetic variances associated with ‘haunt-type’ experiences: A comparison using time-synchronised baseline measurements. European Journal of Parapsychology, 19, 3-28.
Baerentsen, K. B., Hartvig, N. V., Stedkilde-Jorgensen, H., & Mamment, J. (2001). Onset of meditation explored with fMRI. NeuroImage, 13(6), 297.
Charlton, B. G. (2008) Genospirituality: Genetic engineering for spiritual and religious enhancement. Medical Hypotheses, 71, 825-828.
Clark, A. (2010). There is no non-materialist neuroscience. Cortex, 46(2), 147-149.
Corrigan, P., McCorkle, B., Schell, B., & Kidder, K. (2003). Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 39(6), 487-499.
Devinsky, O. (2003). Religious experiences and epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4, 76-77.
Devinsky, O., & Lai, G. (2008). Spirituality and religion in epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 12, 636-643.
Dewhurst, K., & Beard, A. W. (2003). Sudden religious conversions in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4, 78-87.
Drubach, D. A., & Claassen, D. O. (2008). Perception and the awareness of God: The importance of neuronal habituation in the context of the Jewish and Christian faiths. Journal of Religion and Health, 47, 541-548.
Francis, L. (1997). The psychology of gender differences in religion: A review of empirical research. Religion, 27, 81-96.
Fredrikson, M., Granqvist, P., Larsson, M., & Larhammar, D. (2005). Reply to M. A. Persinger and S. A. Koren’s response to Granqvist et al. “Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak magnetic fields”. Neuroscience Letters, 380, 348-350.
Freeman, J., & Persinger, M. A. (1996). Repeated verbal interruptions during exposure to complex transcerebral magnetic fields. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 639-642.
French, C. C., Haque, U., Bunton-Stasyshyn, R., & Davis, R. (2009). The “haunt” project: An attempt to build a “haunted” room by manipulating complex electromagnetic fields and infrasound. Cortex, 45, 619-629.
Freshwater, D. (2006). Mental health and illness: Questions and answers for counsellors and therapist. England: Whurr.
Friedlander, L., & Desrocher, M. (2006). Neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder in adults and children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 32-49.
Fuente-Ferna´ndez, R., Phillips, A. G., Zamburlini, M., Sossi, V., Calne, D. B., Ruth, T. J., & Stoessl, A. J. (2002). Dopamine release in human ventral striatum and expectation of reward. Behavioural Brain Research, 136, 359-363.
Getz, G. E., Fleck, D. E., & Strakowski, S. M. (2001). Frequency and severity of religious delusions in Christian patients with psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 103, 87-91.
Giovagnoli, A. R., Meneses, R. F., & da Silva, A. M. (2006). The contribution of spirituality to quality of life in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 9, 133-139.
Goretzki, M. (2007). Differentiation of psychosis and spiritual emergency. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, The University of Adelaide.
Granqvist, P., Fredrikson, M., Unge, P., Hagenfeldt, A., Valind, S., Larhammar, D., & Larsson, M. (2005). Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak complex magnetic fields. Neuroscience Letters, 379, 1-6.
Greene, J., & Haidt, J. (2002). How (and where) does moral judgment work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(12), 517-523.
Hansen, B. A. & Brodtkorb, E. (2003). Partial epilepsy with “ecstatic” seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4, 667-673.
Hill, D. R., & Persinger, M. A. (2003). Application of transcerebral, weak (1 microT) complex magnetic fields and mystical experiences: Are they generated by field-induced Dimethyltryptamine release from the Pineal Organ? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97, 1049-1050.
Hood, R. W. Jr., Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2009). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (4rd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Inayatullah, S. (2005). Spirituality as the fourth bottom line?. Futures, 37, 573-579.
Jevning, R., Anand, R., Biedebach, M., & Fernando, G. (1996). Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of transcendental meditation. Physiology & Behavior, 59(3), 399-402.
Johnson, C. P. L., & Persinger, M. A. (1994). The sensed presence may be facilitated by interhemispheric intercalation: Relative efficacy of the mind’s eye, hemi-sync tape, and bilateral temporal magnetic field stimulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 351-354.
King, D. B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, and measure. Unpublished masters thesis, Trent University.
Kjaer, T. W., Bertelsen, C., Piccini, P., Brooks, D., Alving, J., & Lou, H. C. (2002). Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 255-259.
Landtblom, A. (2006). The "sensed presence": An epileptic aura with religious overtones. Epilepsy & Behavior, 9, 186–188.
Lee, E. (1998). Periodic left temporal sharp waves during acute psychosis. Journal of Epilepsy, 11, 79-83.
Lou, H., Rosa, P., Kjaer, T., & Gjedde, A. (2006). Awareness in visuo-verbal perception is linked to dopamine release. NeuroImage, 31, Supplement 2, T176.
Mach, Q. H., & Persinger, M. A. (2009). Behavioral changes with brief exposures to weak magnetic fields patterned to stimulate long-term potentiation. Brain Research, 1261, 45-53.
Makarec, K., & Persinger, M. A. (1995). Complex partial epileptic-like signs and diffrential visual search times for normal men and normal women: Implications for functional lateralization. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(5), 643-651.
Martin, L. J., Koren, S. A., & Persinger, M. A. (2004). Thermal analgesic effects from weak, complex magnetic fields and pharmacological interactions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 78, 217-227.
McKay, B. E., & Persinger, M. A. (2003). Combined effects of complex magnetic fields and agmatine for contextual fear learning deficits in rats. Life Sciences, 72, 2489-2498.
McKay, R. (2004). Hallucinating God? The cognitive neuropsychiatry of religious belief and experience. Evolution and Cognition, 10(1), 1-12.
Melton, J. G. (2003). Encyclopedia of American Religions (7th ed.). USA: Gale.
Miller, J. S. (2007). Mystical experiences, neuroscience, and the nature of reality. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Bowling Green State University.
Muramoto, O. (2004). The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in human religious activity. Medical Hypotheses, 62, 479-485.
Newberg, A. B., & Iversen, J. (2003). The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: Neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations. Medical Hypotheses, 61(2), 282–291.
Newberg, A. B., Wintering, N. A., Morgan, D., & Waldman, M. R. (2006). The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during glossolalia: A preliminary SPECT study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 148, 67-71.
Newberg, A., & Lee, B. Y. (2005). The neuroscientific study of religious and spiritual phenomena: Or why God doesn’t use biostatistics. Zygon, 40(2), 469-489.
Newberg, A., Alavi, A., Baime, M., Pourdehnad, M., Santanna, J., & d’Aquili, E. (2001). The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during the complex cognitive task of meditation: a preliminary SPECT study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Section, 106, 113-122.
Newberg, A., Poirdehnad, M., Alavi, A., & d’ Aquili, E. (2003). Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: Preliminary findings and methodological issues. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97, 625-630.
Nickell, J. (2005). Mystical experiences: Magnetic fields or suggestibility? The Skeptical Inquirer, 29(5), 14-15.
Nilsson, K. W., Damberg, M., Ohrvik, J., Leppert, J., Lindstrom, L., Anckarsater, H. & Oreland, L. (2007). Genes encoding for AP-2_ and the Serotonin Transporter are associated with the personality character spiritual acceptance. Neuroscience Letters, 411, 233-237.
O’Connor, M., Wellisch, D. K., Stanton, A. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Irwin, M. R., & Lieberman, M. D. (2008). Craving love? Enduring grief activates brain’s reward center. NeuroImage, 42, 969-972.
Ostow, M. (2007). Spirit, mind, & brain: A psychoanalytic examination of spirituality and religion. New York: Columbia University Press.
Partridge, C. (2004). Alien demonology: The Christian roots of the malevolent extraterrestrial in UFO religions and abduction spiritualities. Religion, 34, 163-189.
Persinger, M. A. (1985). Geophysical variables and behavior: XXX. Intense paranormal experiences occur during days of quiet, global, geomagnetic activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 320-322.
Persinger, M. A. (1999). Increased emergence of alpha activity over the left but not the right temporal lobe within a dark acoustic chamber: Differential response of the left but not the right hemisphere to transcerebral magnetic fields. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 34, 163-169.
Persinger, M. A. (2009). Are our brains structured to avoid refutations of belief in God? An experimental study. Religion, 39, 34-42.
Persinger, M. A., & Koren, S. A. (2005). A response to Granqvist et al. “Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak magnetic fields”. Neuroscience Letters, 380, 346–347.
Persinger, M. A., & Makarec, K. (1992). The feeling of a presence and verbal meaningfulness in context of temporal lobe function: Factor analytic verification of the muses?. Brain and Cognition, 20, 217-226.
Persinger, M. A., Tiller, S. G., & Koren, S. A. (2000). Experimental simulation of a haunt experience and elicitation of paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity by transcerebral complex magnetic fields: induction of a synthetic "ghost"?. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90(2), 659-674.
Previc, F. H. (2006). The role of the extrapersonal brain systems in religious activity. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 500–539.
Pritchard, E. A. (2019). Introduction. In J. Casselberry & E. A. Pritchard (Eds.), Sprit on the move: Black women and Pentecostalism in Africa and the diaspora. (pp. 1-23). Bogart: Duke University Press.
Probst, S. (1993). Temporal lobe soft signs as indicators of fantasy proneness. Unpublished masters thesis, Simon Fraser University.
Puri, B. K., Lekh, S. K., Nijran, K. S., Bagary, M. S., & Richardson, A. J. (2001). SPECT neuroimaging in schizophrenia with religious delusions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 143-148.
Raz, A., Hines, T., Fossella, J., & Castro, D. (2008). Paranormal experience and the COMT dopaminergic gene: A preliminary attempt to associate phenotype with genotype using an underlying brain theory. Cortex, 44, 1336-1341.
Reavley, N., & Pallant, J. F. (2009). Development of a scale to assess the meditation experience. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(6), 547-552.
Rubia, K. (2009). The neurobiology of meditation and its clinical effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychology, 82(1). 1-11.
Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2007). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (10th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schjødt, U., Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H., Geertz, A. W. & Roepstorff, A. (2008). Rewarding prayers. Neuroscience Letters, 443, 165-168.
Semple, D., Smyth, R., Burns, J., Darjee, R., & McIntosh, A. (2005). Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
Seybold, K. S. (2005). God and the brain: Neuroscience looks at religion. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24(2), 122-129.
Short, E. B., Kose, S., Mu, Q., Borckardt, J., Newberg, A., George, M. S., & Kozel, F. A. (2010). Regional brain activation during meditation shows time and practice effects: An exploratory fMRI study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7(1), 121-127.
Sica, C., Novara, C., & Sanavio, E. (2002). Religiousness and obsessive–compulsive cognitions and symptoms in an Italian population. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 813-823.
Simmons, M. T. (2005). Mystical experiences and shyness: An exploration. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Regent University.
Taves, A. (2008). Ascription, attribution, and cognition in the study of experiences deemed religious. Religion, 38, 125-140.
Tek, C., & Ulug, B. (2001). Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 104, 99-108.
Vaitl, D., Birbaumer, N., Gruzelier, J., Jamieson, G. A., Kotchoubey, B., Kubler, A., et al. (2005). Psychobiology of altered states of consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 98-127.
Walach, H. (2007). Mind – Body – Spirituality. Mind & Matter, 5(2), 215-240.
Wardell, D. W., & Engebretson, J. C. (2006). Taxonomy of spiritual experiences. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(2). 215-233.
Watts, F., Nye, R., & Savage, S. (2002). Psychology for Christian ministry. London: Routledge.
Wiech, K., Farias, M., Kahane, G., Shackel, N., Tiede, W., & Tracey, I. (2009). An fMRI study measuring analgesia enhanced by religion as a belief system. Pain, 139, 467-476.
Yorulmaz, O., Gencoz, T., & Woody, S. (2009). OCD cognitions and symptoms in different religious contexts. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 401-406.